【新刊速递】第69期 | International Organization,(新冠特刊), 2020

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【新刊速递】第69期 | International Organization,(新冠特刊), 2020
浏览: 发布日期:2021-09-13

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期刊简介

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《国际组织》(International Organization),简称“IO”,是一份经过同行评议的季刊,涵盖国际事务的领域包括:外交政策、国际关系、国际与比较政治经济学、安全政策、环境争端与解决、欧洲一体化、联盟模式与战争、谈判与冲突解决、经济发展与调整、国际资本流动等。它成立于1947年,由剑桥大学出版社代表国际组织基金会出版,主编是乔治城大学的ErikVoeten。根据Journal Citation Reports显示,2019年其影响因子为5,在95种国际关系期刊中排名第2。

本期编委

【编译】杨紫茵 刘瑛琛 任潇依 肖龙

【审校】刘瑛琛 肖龙 杨紫茵 任潇依 李源

【排版】高佳美

本期目录

1. Pandemic Response as Border Politics

新冠疫情对边界政治的影响

2. The Big Reveal: COVID-19 and Globalization's Great Transformations

大揭秘:新冠疫情与全球化大变革

3. Health Diplomacy in Pandemical Times

疫情时期的卫生外交

4. The Politics of Pandemic Othering: Putting COVID-19 in Global and Historical Context

流行病中的他者化政治:全球与历史背景下的新冠疫情

01

新冠疫情对边界政治的影响

【题目】Pandemic Response as Border Politics

【作者】Michael R. Kenwick,罗格斯大学政治学系助理教授;Beth A. Simmons,宾夕法尼亚大学法学院讲席教授。

【摘要】新冠疫情中充满着边界政治。几个世纪以来,封闭边境和限制外国旅者一直是各国应对全球卫生危机时使用的持续最久和最普遍的手段。这些政策的普遍性不是因为面对流行病时有明确的科学共识。相反,本文揭示了它们受到舆论和国家对边防控制已有承诺的影响,又称边界导向。在新冠疫情出现前,世界范围内的边界导向已经普遍上升。这种趋势使政府更容易通过外部化来“遏制”病毒,而不是采取高成本但更有效的国内缓解措施。本文认为,面对新冠病毒,普遍采取外部边界管控措施反映了人们对现代国际关系体系中边界安全的日益担忧。在很大程度上,对边境安全的担忧已成为国内政治的一种资源,这一发现对于设计和实施有效的公共卫生政策来说并不是一个好兆头。

Pandemics are imbued with the politics of bordering. For centuries, border closures and restrictionson foreign travelers have been the most persistent and pervasive means by which states have responded to global health crises. The ubiquity of these policies is not driven by any clear scientific consensus about their utilityin the face of myriad pandemic threats. Instead, we show they are influenced by public opinion and preexisting commitments to invest in the symbols and structures of state efforts to control their borders, a concept we callborder orientation. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, border orientation was already generally on the rise worldwide. This trend has made it convenient for governments to “contain” the virus by externalizing it, rather thantaking costly but ultimately more effective domestic mitigation measures. We argue that the pervasive use of external border controls in the face of the coronavirus reflects growing anxieties about border security in the moderninternational system. To a great extent, fears relating to border security have become a resource in domestic politics—a finding that does not bode well for designing and implementing effective public health policy.

【编译】杨紫茵

【校对】任潇依

【审核】李源

02

大揭秘:新冠疫情与全球化大变革

【题目】The Big Reveal: COVID-19 and Globalization's Great Transformations

【作者】Kathleen R. McNamara,乔治城大学埃德蒙·A·沃尔什外事学院教授;Abraham L. Newman,乔治城大学埃德蒙·A·沃尔什外事学院教授。

【摘要】学界对后疫情世界的分析倾向于两种极端。对一些人而言,疫情是一场能够重新洗牌的危机,它将对全球政治进行根本性的重新排序。对另一些人而言,国际秩序的基本规则可能会大致保持,世界仍将主要由日渐显现的中美两极体系驱动。作者对这两种叙述都不满意:前者夸大了疫情本身的因果作用,而后者则低估了全球政治从冷战时期国家中心体系转变出来的重要方式。相反,作者认为,疫情揭示了已经在发挥作用的潜在趋势,并促使学者们在研究全球化的方式上不再坐井观天。最关键的是,作者认为,全球化不仅需要被视为一场在赢家和输家之间进行分配的博弈,同时也是一场更为深刻的变革性博弈。它重塑了身份、重新定义了权力与权威的渠道,并产生了新的争议性政治问题。作者从新的学术文献中获得启发,从而为思考全球化政治提出新的理论框架。同时作者还评估了一些关键性的政策领域,在这些领域中,新冠疫情加速了全球化的变革性效应。以此,作者为后疫情时期研究全球市场提出了路线图,这一研究议程也更能充分地捕捉到这些变革及其对世界政治的影响。

Analysis of the post-COVID world tends to gravitate to one of two poles. For some, the pandemicis a crisis that will reshuffle the decks, producing a fundamental reordering of global politics. For others, the basic principles of the international order are likely to remain much the same, driven largely by the emergingbipolar system between the US and China. We find both narratives dissatisfying, as the former overinterprets the causal role of the pandemic itself, while the latter underappreciates the critical ways in which global politicshave been transformed beyond the state-centered system of the Cold War. We argue instead that the pandemic exposes underlying trends already at work and forces scholars to open the aperture on how we study globalization. Mostcentrally, we contend that globalization needs to be seen not just as a distributional game of winners and losers but rather a more profoundly transformational game that reshapes identities, redefines channels of power andauthority, and generates new sites for contentious politics. We draw on emerging work to sketch out a theoretical frame for thinking about the politics of globalization, and assess some of the key policy arenas where COVID-19is accelerating the transformative effects of globalization. In so doing, we suggest a roadmap to a post-pandemic research agenda for studying global markets that more fully captures these transformations and their implicationsfor world politics.

【编译】刘瑛琛

【校对】肖龙

【审核】李源

03

疫情时期的卫生外交

【题目】Health Diplomacy in Pandemical Times

【作者】Tanisha M. Fazal,明尼苏达大学教授。

【摘要】新冠疫情可能带来人们对于卫生外交的更多关注,这是一个很少被国际关系学者讨论的话题。在回顾关于卫生外交的现有文献后,作者认为将各国开展卫生外交的目的和做法区分开来有助于加深我们对各国在双边、区域或全球范围内开展卫生外交的理解。21世纪以来传染病爆发的新近历史表明,卫生外交可能脱离于全球参与。新冠肺炎疫情就提供了许多例子,从对世界卫生组织的广泛批评到日益增长的双边卫生援助和区域疫苗倡议的产生。然而,随着流行病的日益频繁,考虑到进行全球性缓解和遏制的必要性,更多的区域化卫生外交可能效果有限。

One likely effect of the COVID-19 pandemic will be an increased focus on health diplomacy, a topicthat has rarely been taken up by international relations scholars. After reviewing existing literature on health diplomacy, I argue for the utility of distinguishing states’ aims from their practices of health diplomacyin advancing our understanding of when states engage in health diplomacy with a bilateral, regional, or global scope. The recent history of twenty-first century infectious disease outbreaks suggests a possible move away fromhealth diplomacy with global participation. COVID-19 provides numerous examples, from widespread criticism of the World Health Organization to increased bilateral health aid and the creation of a regional vaccine initiative.As pandemics become more frequent, however, more localized health diplomacy is likely to be less effective, given the necessity of global mitigation and containment.

【编译】任潇依

【校对】杨紫茵

【审核】李源

04

 流行病中的他者化政治:全球与历史背景下的新冠疫情

【题目】The Politics of Pandemic Othering: Putting COVID-19 in Global and Historical Context

【作者】Kim Yi Dionne, 美国加州大学河滨分校政治学系副教授;Fulya Felicity Türkmen, 美国加州大学河滨分校政治学系博士生。

【摘要】当新冠疫情开始在全球范围内传播时,全世界也出现了各种针对边缘人群的歧视和暴力。本文认为,在以种族不平等为特征的全球政治中,类似于新冠疫情的流行病加剧了受压迫人群的持续边缘化。本文考察了关于以往的流行病的文献,并从历史的角度思考了流行病中的他者化和归责,以此列举了流行病的一些政治、政策、和公共卫生的后果。具体的经验教训包括天花的爆发、第三次黑死病、1918年西班牙流感,以及其他的现代流行病,如艾滋病、非典与埃博拉等。本文也收集了在新冠疫情之中针对边缘人群的歧视和暴力的报告。本文由此披露了疾病流行期间的他者化与归责的漫长历史,并指出了继续探究以理解这种持续存在的流行病政治的需要。

As COVID-19 began to spread around the world, so did reports of discrimination and violence againstpeople from marginalized groups. We argue that in a global politics characterized by racialized inequality, pandemics such as COVID-19 exacerbate the marginalization of already oppressed groups. We review published researchon previous pandemics to historicize pandemic othering and blame, and enumerate some of the consequences for politics, policy, and public health. Specifically, we draw on lessons from smallpox outbreaks, the third bubonicplague, the 1918 influenza pandemic, and more recent pandemics, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and Ebola. We also compile reports to document the discrimination and violence targeting marginalized groups early in the COVID-19 pandemic.This article lays bare the continuation of a long history of othering and blame during disease outbreaks and identifies needs for further inquiry to understand the persistence of these pandemic politics.

【编译】肖龙

【校对】刘瑛琛

【审核】李源

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